Armed Forces / References and acknowledgements


Boman, B. (1982), 'The Vietnam Veteran Ten Years On', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 16(3): 107-127

Borus, J. (1973), 'Reentry I. Adjustment Issues Facing the Vietnam Returnee', Archives of General Psychiatry, 28(4): 501-506

Burris, V. (2008), 'From Vietnam to Iraq: Continuity and Change in Between-Group Differences in Support for Military Action', Social Problems, 55(4): 443-479

Caforio, G.  (2007), 'Media and Public Opinion', in Caforio, G. (ed.), Cultural Differences between the Military and Parent Society in Democratic Countries (Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development, Volume 4), Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing

Clements, B. (2011), 'Examining Public Attitudes towards Recent Foreign Policy Issues: Britain's Involvement in the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts',  Politics, 31(2): 63-71

Edmunds, T. (2012), 'British civil-military relations and the problem of risk', International Affairs, 88(2): 265-282

Eichenberg, R. (2003), 'Gender Differences in Public Attitudes toward the Use of Force by the United States,1990-2003', International Security, 28(1): 110-141

Forster, A. (2012), 'The Military Covenant and British Civil-Military Relations: Letting the Genie out of the Bottle', Armed Forces & Society, 38(2): 273-290

Foyle, D. (2004), 'Leading the Public To War? The Influence of American Public Opinion on the Bush Administration's Decision to go to War in Iraq', International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 16(3): 269-294

Gartner, S., Segura, G.M. and Wilkening, M. (1997), 'All Politics Are Local: Local Losses and Individual Attitudes toward the Vietnam War', The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(5): 669-694

Gelpi, C., Feaver, P.D. and Reifler, J. (2009), 'Theories of American Attitudes to Warfare', in Gelpi, C., Feaver, P.D. and Reifler, J. (eds.), Paying the Human Costs of War: American Public Opinion and Casualties in Military Conflicts, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press

Gonzalez, A. (1996), 'Spanish attitudes towards Multinational Defense', in Manigart, P. (ed.), Future Roles, Missions and Structures of Armed Forces in the New World Order: The Public View, Commack, New York: Nova Science Publishers

Holsti, O. (2004), 'Sources of Foreign Policy Attitudes' in Holsti, O. (ed.), Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press

Leal, D. (2005), 'American Public Opinion toward the Military: Differences by Race, Gender, and Class?', Armed Forces & Society, 32(1): 123-138

McCartney, H. (2010), 'The military covenant and the civil-military contract in Britain', International Affairs, 86(2): 411-428

Rohall, D., Ender, M.G. and Matthews, M.D. (2006), 'The Effects of Military Affiliation, Gender, and Political Ideology on Attitudes toward the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq', Armed Forces & Society, 33(1): 59-77

Schoen, H. (2007), 'Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion', Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51(3): 408-430

Scotto, T., Reifler, J., Clarke, H.D., Diaz Lopez, J.A., Saunders, D., Stewart, M. and Whiteley, P. (2011), 'Attitudes towards British Involvement in Afghanistan - Institute for Democracy & Conflict Resolution Briefing Paper 03/11', available at:

Sirin, C. (2011), 'Public Support for Military Interventions across Levels of Political Information and Stages of Intervention: The Case of the Iraq War', Armed Forces & Society, 38(2): 252-272

van der Meulen, J. and de Konink, M. (2001), 'Risky missions: Dutch public opinion on peace-keeping in the Balkans', in Everts, P. and Isernia, P. (eds.), Public opinion and the international use of force, London: Routledge

Vennesson, P. (2003), 'Civil-military relations in France: is there a gap?', Journal of Strategic Studies, 26(2): 29-42

Yager, T., Laufer, R. and Gallops, M. (1984), 'Some problems associated with war experience in men of the Vietnam generation', Archives of General Psychiatry, 41(4): 327-33


NatCen Social Research is grateful to the Economic and Social Research Council (RES-062-23-2878) for their financial support which enabled us to ask the questions reported in this chapter. The views expressed are those of the authors alone. 

Download chapter
  1. See
  2. A police estimate of numbers. Protest organisers suggested a figure nearer two million. See
  3. 'Armed Forces Covenant recognised in law for first time', Ministry of Defence, Defence News, 3rd November, 2011, available at
  4. A report by the former Liberal Democrat leader and career soldier Lord Ashcroft (2012) recently cast some light on public attitudes towards the Armed Forces, but owing to its sampling strategy the findings were not necessarily representative of the UK population as a whole.
Related links