Immigration / References and acknowledgements

References

Achato, L., Eaton, M. and Jones, C. (2010), 'The Migrant Journey', Home Office Research Report 43, London: Home Office

Asylum Aid (2010), 'Unsustainable: the quality of initial decision-making in women's asylum claims', Women's Asylum News, 97: 1-4

Blinder, S. (2011a), 'Migration to the UK: Asylum', Migration Observatory Briefing Paper, available at: www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/migration-uk-asylum

Blinder, S. (2011b), 'UK public opinion toward immigration: Overall attitudes and level of concern' Migration Observatory Briefing Paper, available at: www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/uk-public-opinion-toward-immigration-overall-attitudes-and-level-concern

Cavanagh, M. and Glennie, A. (2012), International students and net migration in the UK, Institute for Public Policy Research, available at: www.ippr.org/images/media/files/publication/2012/04/international-students-net-migrationApr20128997.pdf

Costello, C. (2011), 'UK migration policy and EU law', Migration Observatory Policy Primer, available at: www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/policy-primers/uk-migration-policy-and-eu-law

Dustmann, C., Casanova, M., Fertig, M., Preston, I. and Schmidt, C.M. (2003), The impact of EU enlargement on migration flows, Research Development and Statistics Directorate, London: Home Office

Gibney, M. (2011), 'Asylum Policy', Migration Observatory Policy Primer, available at:
www.migrobs.vm.bytemark.co.uk/policy-primers/asylum-policy

Hansen, R. (2000), Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Migration Observatory (2011), Thinking behind the numbers: Understanding public opinion on immigration in Britain, Oxford: Migration Observatory, available at: www.migrobs.vm.bytemark.co.uk/sites/files/migobs/Report%20-%20Public%20Opinion.pdf

Ruhs, M. (2011), 'Responding to employers: labour shortages and immigration policy', Migration Observatory Policy Primer, available at: www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/policy-primers/responding-employers-labour-shortages-and-immigration-policy

Somerville, W. (2007), Immigration under New Labour, Bristol: The Policy Press

Spencer, S. (2009), 'Immigration', in Seldon, A. (eds.), Blair's Britain 1997-2007, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Vargas-Silva, C. (2012), 'Migration Flows of A8 and other EU Migrants', Migration Observatory Briefing Paper, available at: www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/migration-flows-a8-and-other-eu-migrants-and-uk

Acknowledgements

NatCen Social Research is grateful to Unbound Philanthropy, the Trust for London, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust, the Paul Hamlyn Foundation and the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund for their generous financial support which enabled us to ask the questions reported in this chapter. We are also grateful to Will Somerville, Heaven Crawley, Ian Preston, Lauren McLaren, Zrinka Bralo, Scott Blinder, Kirsteen Tait, Shamit Saggar, Chris Attwood, Jon Simmons, Ayesha Sara, Eleanor Taylor, Alison Park and the late, and much missed, Roger Jowell for their advice and assistance in developing the immigration question module. The views expressed are those of the authors alone.

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Notes
  1. More meetings were called by Prime Minister Tony Blair in relation to asylum between 2001 and 2004 than any other issue apart from Iraq (Spencer, 2009: 359).
  2. Speech by immigration minister Damian Green, 15th September 2011, available at 
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/speeches/family-migration
  3. In particular, the sharp fall in net migration in 2008 reflects a major exodus that year following a dramatic deterioration in eco-nomic conditions.
  4. Though controls are applied to the 'A2' - Romania and Bulgaria - and were recently extended.
  5. Respondents to the 2002 European Social Survey were asked the following questions:

    Would you say it is generally bad or good for Britain's economy that people come to live here from other countries? Please use this card. [0 Bad for the economy, 10 Good for the economy]

    And, using this card, would you say that Britain's cultural life is generally undermined or enriched by people coming to live here from other countries? [0 Cultural life undermined, 10 Cultural life enriched]

  6. This table is a transformation of the original data, which asked respondents to rate the impacts of migration on a 0-10 scale. We have coded scores of 0-1 as "very bad", 2-4 as "bad", 5 as "neither good nor bad", 6-8 as "good" and 9-10 as "very good".
  7. Bases for Table 2.4 are as follows:

    undefined
  8. Racial prejudice is measured slightly differently in the two surveys. On the European Social Survey this refers to levels of discomfort about a relative marrying an immigrant from a different ethnic group. On British Social Attitudes respondents were asked to rate their
level of racial prejudice, with three categories: "a lot", "a little" or "none". The cut points in the European Social Survey data are chosen to reflect the same general distribution as these categories.
  9. In our experiments, we repeatedly use "Muslim countries" as a comparison region, usually using Pakistan and Bangladesh as examples. This is for two reasons. Firstly, Muslim countries have been a large source of migrants to Britain for several decades. Secondly, Muslims and Muslim migrants have featured very heavily in recent debates over migration and integration, so much so that some authors have argued they have become singled out as a 'pariah' group (Saggar, 2010). We therefore wanted to test if public concerns about immigrants who are clearly labelled as Muslims were stronger than those about immigrants from other regions.
  10. A 2010 Home Office report suggested 79 per cent of 2004 student migrants had left the UK by 2010 (Achato et al., 2010).
  11. Searches of the websites of Britain's two largest populist 'tabloid' newspapers - The Sun and The Daily Mail - reveal many stories about abuse of the family migration system, focusing in particular on fraudulent 'sham marriages' and on the problem of 'forced' or 'arranged' marriages. These stories also tend to focus on migrants from poorer non-white regions such as Africa and the Muslim countries of the Indian sub-continent, which may explain why support for migrants from these regions is particularly low.
  12. Speech by Immigration minister Damian Green, 2nd February 2012, available at: 
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/speeches/making-immigration-work?version=1

 

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  • Notes
    1. More meetings were called by Prime Minister Tony Blair in relation to asylum between 2001 and 2004 than any other issue apart from Iraq (Spencer, 2009: 359).
    2. Speech by immigration minister Damian Green, 15th September 2011, available at 
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/speeches/family-migration
    3. In particular, the sharp fall in net migration in 2008 reflects a major exodus that year following a dramatic deterioration in eco-nomic conditions.
    4. Though controls are applied to the 'A2' - Romania and Bulgaria - and were recently extended.
    5. Respondents to the 2002 European Social Survey were asked the following questions:

      Would you say it is generally bad or good for Britain's economy that people come to live here from other countries? Please use this card. [0 Bad for the economy, 10 Good for the economy]

      And, using this card, would you say that Britain's cultural life is generally undermined or enriched by people coming to live here from other countries? [0 Cultural life undermined, 10 Cultural life enriched]

    6. This table is a transformation of the original data, which asked respondents to rate the impacts of migration on a 0-10 scale. We have coded scores of 0-1 as "very bad", 2-4 as "bad", 5 as "neither good nor bad", 6-8 as "good" and 9-10 as "very good".
    7. Bases for Table 2.4 are as follows:

      undefined
    8. Racial prejudice is measured slightly differently in the two surveys. On the European Social Survey this refers to levels of discomfort about a relative marrying an immigrant from a different ethnic group. On British Social Attitudes respondents were asked to rate their
level of racial prejudice, with three categories: "a lot", "a little" or "none". The cut points in the European Social Survey data are chosen to reflect the same general distribution as these categories.
    9. In our experiments, we repeatedly use "Muslim countries" as a comparison region, usually using Pakistan and Bangladesh as examples. This is for two reasons. Firstly, Muslim countries have been a large source of migrants to Britain for several decades. Secondly, Muslims and Muslim migrants have featured very heavily in recent debates over migration and integration, so much so that some authors have argued they have become singled out as a 'pariah' group (Saggar, 2010). We therefore wanted to test if public concerns about immigrants who are clearly labelled as Muslims were stronger than those about immigrants from other regions.
    10. A 2010 Home Office report suggested 79 per cent of 2004 student migrants had left the UK by 2010 (Achato et al., 2010).
    11. Searches of the websites of Britain's two largest populist 'tabloid' newspapers - The Sun and The Daily Mail - reveal many stories about abuse of the family migration system, focusing in particular on fraudulent 'sham marriages' and on the problem of 'forced' or 'arranged' marriages. These stories also tend to focus on migrants from poorer non-white regions such as Africa and the Muslim countries of the Indian sub-continent, which may explain why support for migrants from these regions is particularly low.
    12. Speech by Immigration minister Damian Green, 2nd February 2012, available at: 
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/speeches/making-immigration-work?version=1

     

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