Spending and welfare / References and acknowledgements


Bartels, L. (2008), Unequal Democracy: the Political Economy of the New Gilded Age, Princeton: Princeton University Press 

Clery, E. (2012), 'Are tough times affecting attitudes to welfare?', in Park, A., Clery, E., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Utting, D. (eds.) (2012), British Social Attitudes: the 29th Report, London: NatCen Social Research, available at: www.bsa-29.natcen.ac.uk 

Clery, E., Lee L. and Kunz S. (2013), Public attitudes to poverty and welfare, 1983-2011: analysis using British Social Attitudes data, NatCen Social Research, available at: www.natcen.ac.uk/media/1106142/poverty%20and%20welfare.pdf 

Curtice, J. (2010), 'Thermostat or weathervane? Public reactions to spending and redistribution under New Labour', in Park, A., Curtice, J., Thomson, K., Phillips, M., Clery, E. and Butt, S. (eds.), British Social Attitudes: the 26th Report, London: Sage

Cusack, T., Iversen, T. and Rehm, P. (2005), Risks at Work: The Demand and Supply Sides of Government Redistribution, (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 791305), Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network

Jaeger, M. (2009), 'United But Divided: Welfare Regimes and the Level and Variance in Public Support for Redistribution', European Sociological Review, 25(6): 723-37

Kulin, J. and Svallfors, S. (2011), 'Class, Values, and Attitudes Towards Redistribution: A European Comparison', European Sociological Review, 29(2): 155-167

Petersen, M., Slothuus, R., Stubager, R. and Togeby, L. (2010), 'Deservingness versus values in public opinion on welfare: The automaticity of the deservingness heuristic', European Journal of Political Research, 50(1): 24-52

Petersen, M., Sznycer, D., Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (2012), 'Who Deserves Help? Evolutionary Psychology, Social Emotions, and Public Opinion about Welfare', Political Psychology, 33(3): 395-418

Reeskens, T. and Van Oorschot, W. (2013), 'Equity, equality, or need? A study of popular preferences for welfare redistribution principles across 24 European countries', Journal of European Public Policy, 20(8), 1174-1195

Rowlingson, K., Orton, M. and Taylor, E. (2010), 'Do we still care about inequality?', in Park, A., Curtice, J., Clery, E. and Bryson, C. (eds.) (2010), British Social Attitudes - the 27th Report: Exploring Labour's Legacy, London: Sage

Van Oorschot, W. (2006), 'Making the difference in social Europe: deservingness perceptions among citizens of European welfare states', Journal of European Social Policy, 16(1): 23-42

Van Oorschot, W., Reeskens, T. and Meuleman, B. (2012), 'Popular perceptions of welfare state consequences: A multilevel, cross-national analysis of 25 European countries', Journal of European Social Policy, 22(2): 181-197


NatCen Social Research is grateful to the Department for Work and Pensions for their financial support which enabled us to ask the questions reported in this chapter. The views expressed are those of the authors alone.


1. 1987 was chosen as the starting point for our analysis in order to use a comparable measure of social class with all subsequent years.

2. The bases for Table 2.5 are as follows:


3. The bases for Table 2.6 are as follows:


4. The bases for Table 2.7 are as follows:


5. The bases for Table 2.8 are as follows: